The vineyards are located in the hilly arc along the north side, with a South-South/West exposure: while for white grape varieties such as Grechetto, Chardonnay, Yellow Trebbiano, White and Yellow Malvasia, as well as some autochthonous grape varieties
are all grown by suppliers with vineyards spread in the southern arch of the lake towards Montefiascone. Bolsena Lake is one of the largest volcanic lakes in Europe: its geological history is described by the collapse of the volcanic apparatus Vulsinio following strong lava eruptions, about 300,000 years ago in the Paleozoic, which produced a collapse of the volcano on itself, creating with the lava deposit material, a crater of 113.5 km2.
The volcanic soil of lava lapillus is rich in silicon and rests on a dense basaltic layer that in some areas emerges due to soil erosion, showing its underlying skeleton. Silicon has a great ability to stratify with other minerals such as potassium, iron and magnesium, which involves the formation of a soil, characterized by the strong presence of minerals but also able to trap water – phenomenon - that does not allow the evaporation of the soil ensuring an excellent water retention, important for the root system of plants, especially in dry periods. The soils are loose, because they are formed by lapillus, not compact in the proximity of the lake, while in the hilly and neighboring areas, the outcropping basaltic rock is more evident.
A peculiar feature of the lake is the sudden change in the water level of about 50 cm as well as the presence of sea winds from east to west, about 35/40 km from the coast, which generate a wave motion that crashes on the lake’s beaches. The wind is a key part of the lake's microclimate witch oxygenates it, it bathes the coasts and it allows farmers not to incur diseases such as molds that are produced in the vineyards. The same presence of this water basin, with its humidity avoids large thermal excursions, by mitigating low temperatures, that can affect the plants’ robustness and flowering.
In this unique territory, loved by travelers and winemakers, the water never fails like the beautiful landscape of views, villages and roads immersed in the lush green of the spring/summer nature or in the fascinating elegance of autumn/winter painted orange-red colors.
In this area, great wines have been produced thanks to the winemaking and enological experience that the territory has achieved over the centuries, a renowned production history. The types of the area are the DOC of the Aleatic of Gradoli, the Etruscan Hills of Viterbo and the renowned East! East!! East!!! Of Montefiascone, produced by la Dama del Lago’s winery. This productive range is composed of a favorable climate and a very fertile soil that allow large maturations and growth of the greenery. The humidity that could have generated oidium’s problems, a summer disease of the plant, which thanks to the marine winds of the lagoon microclimate dries the morning dew, removing the possibility of proliferation. The winery La Dama del Lago ‘s vineyards are pollarded once or twice a year, precisely to contain this exuberant vigor of the plant and a Terroir that is too favorable to vegetation.
During the veraison on the two fruit canes of the year of production are left to grow two bunches, while in the reds, the production buds are halved for selection. The planting of the rows is maintained until spring with a cover crop, to avoid the dragging of the ground downstream; the thinning done with one or two passages depending on the vintage. The vineyards of 4 hectares of red berried grapes of the estate, are all reared a cordon spur, while the white berried varieties, managed by the suppliers, in the southern area of the lake towards Montefiascone, are Guyot-trained.
The yields of the winery in tons per hectare of the vineyards are about 45, for Cabernet Sauvignon, 90 for Sangiovese, while for the whites, the average is about 70/80 for Grechetto and Chardonnay and 100 for Roscetto, Malvasia and the autochthonous grape varieties.